Course DescriptionThis course is designed to focus on inclusion as it relates to children with disabilities and how to include them into public education. Current issues and trends, parent/professional relationships, legislation and legal rights, and other related topics will be covered. In addition, current resources available on the World Wide Web will be explored and utilized.
- Discuss the historical perspective of Inclusion.
- Analyze a classroom system.
- Assess barriers to Inclusion.
- Discuss important research related to instruction.
- Construct a prototype of an ideal classroom.
- Explain legislation dealing with inclusion (PL 94-142 and the 1990 Amendments and IDEA 97) and why this legislation was enacted
- Justify the concept of a continuum of educational placements (LRE)
- Summarize the effects of litigation in promoting inclusion
- Assess how prejudice impacts teaching
- Distinguish characteristics of disabilities that qualify children and youth for special education services under IDEA
- Research and report on learning needs of students with disabilities
- Determine specific curriculum accommodations by reflecting on classroom situations
- Incorporate new specific curriculum accommodations into your classroom setting based on what is learned in this module
- Report on the impact of the accommodation in the Forum
- Identify central tendencies of behavioral attributes and the manifested needs associated with disabilities
- Utilize the Web for research to locate current information about the learning theory and software that supports learning for students with disabilities
- Refine your individual continuums.
- Reflect on your own classrooms and identify barriers to effective accommodations.
- Prepare a barrier analysis sheet.
- Compare and contrast inclusion and mainstreaming.
- Develop a philosophy for how to interact with parents who have children with disabilities.
- Incorporate Web resources that support parents with children with disabilities.
- Evaluate the impact of changes in education due to the inclusion movement.
- Analyze the major concerns regular education teachers have with full or partial inclusion.
- Evaluate pros and cons to inclusion as supported by current research.
- Determine how classrooms have changed and what that means for teaching children with diverse needs.
- Evalute how to manage disruptive behavior in inclusive classrooms.
- Identify how a student with severe medical needs be taught in a typical classroom.
- Examine Internet and other resources to increase awareness of disabilities for K-12 students.
- Create activities to teach disability awareness to K-12 students.
- Identify the steps in the IEP process.
- Define what students with disabilities will need in the 21st century.
- Define a SOP (a summary of the child’s academic achievement and functional performance)
- Describe how schools need to better prepare students with disabilities for post school life
- Define assistive devices and list five classifications.
- Define accommodation and provide examples.
- Describe what types of accommodations need to be made for students with disabilities.
- Begin creating an Action Plan.
- Develop a personal position on inclusion and support the position with the information from the course (discussions, readings, research material, and personal experiences).
- Complete an action plan for the final project for this course and include Internet resources in the plan.
Curriculum Design & Time RequirementsParticipants will access professional literature and research at the course site. Students will use a bulletin board system, called the Forum, to receive and report on assignments; participate in group activities and dialogues; and receive personal feedback from the instructor. The Forum is an asynchronous bulletin board system. Students will be posting and dialoging in individual forums specific to each module. Teachers will experience the power of the Internet to connect and network teachers from across the country, and they will enjoy the benefits that connection and support can bring. Inclusion is a 13 week 3 credit graduate level or sixty hour professional development course taught online. Modules 1 - 8 will be completed one per week. Modules 9 and 10 will be completed over a four-week period so students will have time to revise and complete the final project.
Hardware & Computer Skill RequirementsStudents may use either a Macintosh computer or a PC with Windows 2000 or higher. Students should possess basic word processing skills and have internet access with an active e-mail account. Students also are expected to have a basic knowledge of how to use a Web browser, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer, Safari, Mozilla Firefox etc.
Course MaterialsThe required textbook for this course is Including Students with Severe and Multiple Disabilities in Typical Classrooms by June E. Downing, Ph.D. (ISBN 1-55766-239-8). The textbook, course materials, and an extensive Recommended Reading List will be provided for all students. In addition, online readings and Web site reviews (including journal articles and best practices from the body of educational research) will be assigned during the course to enhance learning. These readings will be presented as annotated Web sites within the course content.
Session OutlineSession 1: Introduction
Objective: Student will demonstrate the ability to use the Forum by posting a paragraph in the correct Forum as outlined in the assignment. Students will develop learning objectives for the course. Students will be able to explain when inclusion is a verb and when inclusion is a noun. Contents:
- Overview of Inclusion
- Personal Introductions in the Forum
- "An attitude that celebrates diversity . . ."
- Achieving Inclusion through collaboration
- Forum Discussion
- Identify Personal Learning Objectives
- The Learning Community
- Importance of Each Participant's Commitment
- Contact with Disabled Persons and Students
- Identify Common Feelings Regarding the Disabled
- "A Disability is a Diversity . . ."
Session 2: The Need for Inclusion
Objective: Students will develop a historical perspective of Inclusion, analyze a classroom system, begin identifying barriers to Inclusion, review important research related to instruction, learn definitions of disabilities, and construct a prototype of an ideal classroom. Students will also identify Web resources for teachers, parents, and students.
- Disability vs. Diversity
- Historical Perspective
- Societal Trends
- Defining the Classroom and Classroom Systems
- Conclusions by Researchers Regarding Instruction
- The Ideal Classroom
- Forum Discussion
- Disabilities Which Qualify Students for Services under IDEA
- Major Characteristics of Each Defined Disability
- Opinion Essay
- Resources for Teachers
- Resources for Parents
- Resources for Students
Session 3: It's the Law/Courts
Objective: Students will demonstrate knowledge of legislation dealing with inclusion (PL 94-142 through 105-17 IDEA 97) and gain a more functional understanding of why this legislation was enacted. Students will demonstrate knowledge of terms related to special education law. Students will understand the concept of a continuum of educational placements and demonstrate knowledge of legal issues that result from inclusion legislation. Students will consider the issue of prejudice. Students will understand how the legal decisions have impacted on the provision of services for children with disabilities. Students will utilize the Web for research to locate current information about the reauthorization of IDEA.
- Understanding the Law
- Federal Legislation
- PL 94-142
- PL 99-457
- PL 101-476 (1990 Amendments)
- PL 105-17
- Reauthorization of IDEA 97
- Educational Environments
- Least Restrictive Environment
- Most Restrictive Environment
- Placement Options
- Court Cases: Important Concepts
- Implications for How Schools Provide Services
- How Districts Implement These Decisions
- Web Resources
- The Relationship Between Prejudice and Legislation
- Issues Associated with Prejudice
- Guilt and Prejudice
Session 4: A Continuum for Effective Inclusion
Objective:Students will demonstrate knowledge of the characteristics of disabilities that qualify children and youth for special education services under IDEA. Students will identify learning needs of students with disabilities based on research. Students will determine specific curriculum accommodations by reflecting on their own classroom situations. Students will incorporate new specific curriculum accommodations into their classroom setting based on what is learned in this module. Students will report on the impact of the accommodation in the Forum. Students will identify central tendencies of behavioral attributes and the manifested needs associated with disabilities. Students will utilize the Web for research to locate current information about the learning theory and software that supports learning for students with disabilities.
- Time Needed vs. Time Allowed
- Accommodations for Pacing
- Mastery Learning
- Generic and Specific Skills
- School as a Means to Achieve Aspirations
- Needs Satisfaction
- Central Tendencies of Behavioral Attributes
- Manifested Needs
- Instructional Accommodations
- Research on Learning
- Curriculum Resources
- Other Support
Session 5: Continuum/Barriers
Objective:Students will refine their individual continuums. Students will reflect on their own classrooms and identify barriers to effective accommodations. Students will prepare a barrier analysis sheet. Students will evaluate continuums in assigned small groups in the Forum or via e-mail.
- Specific Accommodations for Specific Disabilities
- Research on Teaching
- Disability Manifested Needs
- Essential Training and/or Experience
- Current Classroom Status
- Desired Classroom Status
- Requires Adjustments in the Classroom
- Identify what you Need
- Identify the Degrees of Freedom and Restrictions
- Board-based Participation
Session 6: Parents
Objective: Students will understand the difference between inclusion and mainstreaming. Students will develop sensitivity for parents' feelings about having a child with a disability. Students will understand some of the struggles parents of children with disabilities have had to endure. Students will identify what parents want for their children with disabilities. Students will develop a philosophy for how to interact with parents who have children with disabilities. Students will identify Web resources that support parents with children with disabilities. Students will continue to revise their continuums based on new information presented.
- Mainstreaming vs. Inclusion
- Identifying the Difference
- District Status
- The Child of Your Dreams
- The Impact of Children
- The Dream vs. Reality
- Understanding Parents' Feelings
- Forum Discussion
- Active Listening
- Demonstrate Understanding
- Listening Codes
- Past Services
- Current Services
- Strategies for Effective Communication
- Discrepancies Between Parents' Wants and Current Practice
Session 7: Staff Needs
Objective: Students will understand the impact of changes in education due to the inclusion movement. Students will identify the major concerns regular education teachers have with full or partial inclusion. Students will identify and evaluate pros and cons to inclusion as supported by current research. Students will understand how classrooms have changed and what that means for teaching children with diverse need.
- Pros and Cons: What the Research Says
- Arguments for Inclusion
- Arguments Against Inclusion
- Classrooms 15 to 20 Years Ago
- Classrooms Today
- The Impact of Change
- New Accommodations
- Revising the Continuum
- Changes in Attitudes
- Attitudes, Perceptions and Fears
- Strategies for Addressing Fear
Session 8: IEP's/Student Awareness
Objective: Students will identify Internet and other resources to increase awareness of disabilities for k-12 students. Students will create activities to teach disability awareness to k-12 students. Students will identify the steps in the IEP process.
- Disability Awareness for Regular Education
- Classroom Activities
- Internet Activities
- Forum Discussion
- What is a Friend?
- Isolation of Students with Disabilities
- Accessing Appropriate Education Services
- Modifying Goals and Objectives
- Inconsistencies or Gaps in Services
- Developing an IEP
Culminating Assignment: Students will participate in discussion using the Forum. The students will write an IEP based on their continuums that could be used for a student in their class. In addition, the students will identify Internet activities/Web sites that can be used for their students, parents, and school. Students will write a reflection on the required reading, assigned Web sites, research article, or best practice focusing on what is learned. The reflection should discuss new ideas and significant insights about inclusion.
Session 9: Accommodations/Technology
Objective: Students will identify technology that assists students with disabilities. Students will define AAC. Students will understand what types of accommodations need to be made for students with disabilities. Students will begin creating their Action Plan.
- Technology to Assist Students with Disabilities
- Types of Technology
- Impact of Technology on Teaching
- Technology with Regular Education Students
- Technology for Students with Disabilities
- Accessing Assistive Technology Resources
- Communication Disorders
- Augmentative and Alternative Communication
- Communication Devices
- Technology as an Accommodation
- Assistive Technology
- Customized Commercial Products
- On-going Evaluation
- Determine current levels of inclusion at your school and in your school district
- Interview your principal and district Special Education Coordinator to determine
- Begin developing your action plan and reflect on how your plan will fit in with your school and district policies
Session 10: Action Plan
Objective: Students will develop a personal position on inclusion. They will support their position with the information from the course (discussions, readings, research material, and personal experiences). Students will complete their action plan for their final project for this course and include Internet resources in their plan.
- Personal Position Paper Requirements
- State Position on Inclusion
- Provide Supportive Information
- What You Will do When Teaching
- Summary and Conclusions
- Making it Work in Your School and in Your District
Mail the final integration project to the Instructor. Reflect on your experiences in this course by completing the Course Evaluation Form.
|Forum Discussions||27||100 93||A|
|Article Reviews||9||84 77||C|
|Personal Position Paper||20|
|1.||Participate in assigned online discussions.|
|2.||Complete reflections as outlined in the modules.|
|3.||Complete article reviews.|
|4.||Complete Inclusion Action Plan.|
|5.||Complete Personal Position paper.|
Online DiscussionsStudents will interact and dialogue in the course Forum. Forum discussions are worth 27 points. Reflections Most modules present a topic and ask you to reflect on what you are learning. Your reflections are outlined in each module. Type your reflections single space with an extra blank line between paragraphs. Use spell checker and proofread your work. Send all reflections to the course instructor in the body of an e-mail message (not as e-mail attachments) on or before the assigned due date. Please place the Module # and the word Reflection in the subject line of your reflection e-mail messages, for example - Module 1 Reflection. One technique is to create and save your reflections in word processing and then copy/paste the reflection into an e-mail message. Reflections and postings should be written in the first person. Please include your name at the top of each reflection. You will receive feedback on each reflection. Reflections are worth 24 points.
Article ReviewsArticle reviews are important to graduate study. Select articles that address the topic of inclusion and write a two-page review for each article selected. Three articles should be selected for review (at least one article has to be from an online resource). Students may submit their article reviews at any time throughout the course. Reviews may also be submitted at the end of the course with the Personal Postion paper and Action Plan. They must be postmarked by the last day of the course to receive credit. Article reviews are worth 9 points. Select your articles from any professional journal in print or online (online resources will be presented throughout the course). Many professional journals focus on education, psychology, rehabilitation, or early childhood. These are excellent resources. Include the following points in your review:
|1.||Identify the journal or online resource and the author.|
|2.||Identify the problem statement (what is the author trying to describe or prove?)|
|3.||What other articles or books does the author reference?|
|4.||What is the target population, who is being researched or studied?|
|5.||Where was the research being conducted? (location, geographic area)|
|6.||What types of methods were used in the study? (observation, statistical analysis)|
|7.||What about validity or reliability?|
|8.||Describe the results.|
|9.||How relevant is the study for current educational practice?|
Action PlanDevelop a personal action plan for the classroom. Specific requirements will be provided in Module 9 and Module 10. The Action Plan is worth 20 points.
Personal Position PaperWrite a personal position paper that discusses your position on inclusion. Support your position with information from the course and from current research.
The paper should be four to six pages, typed, following the standard format, i.e., double-spaced with no more than 1.25-inch margins, with a bibliography at the end of the paper. Specific requirements will be given in Module 10. The paper is worth 20 points.